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Aleppo Codex (Haketer)
The Aleppo Codex, now known in Hebrew as Keter Aram Zova, is the oldest and most famous manuscript of the Bible. Written in Tiberias in the year 920, it has become the most authoritative biblical text in Jewish culture. The most famous halakhic authority to rely on it was Maimonides, in his exposition of the laws governing the writing of Torah scrolls in his codification of Jewish law (Mishneh Torah). After its completion, the Keter was brought to Jerusalem. Toward the end of the 11th century, it was stolen and taken to Egypt, where it was redeemed by the Jewish community of Cairo. At the end of the 14th century the Keter was taken to Aleppo, Syria (called by the Jews Aram Zova, the biblical name of part of Syria)—this is the origin of the manuscript’s modern name. It remained in the keeping of the Aleppo Jewish community until the anti-Jewish riots of December 1947, during which the ancient synagogue where it was kept was broken into and burned. The Keter itself disappeared. In 1958 the Keter was smuggled into Israel and presented to the president of the state, Itzhak Ben-Zvi. Upon its arrival it was found that parts of the codex had been lost. The Keter was entrusted to the keeping of the Ben-Zvi Institute and the Hebrew University in Jerusalem. Some time after its arrival, Rabbi Breuer began the monumental work of reconstructing the lost sections, on the basis of other well-known ancient manuscripts.

A page from the Aleppo Codex, Jesaiah 36-37

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